Critical thinking: Test causal hypothesis

Causal-effect relationship helps in the analysis of situation and problem-solving issues. Thus, it is of necessity to bear in mind causal hypotheses testing principles:

Covariation between A and B.

  • Do we find that A and B occur together in the way hypothesized?
  • When A dos not occur, is there also an absence of B?
  • When there is more or less of A, does one also find more or less of B?

Time order of events moving in the hypothesized direction

  • Does A occur before B?

No other possible causes of B.

  • Can one determine that C, D and E do not covary with B in a way that suggests possible causal connections?


Source: Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill International Edition, Ninth Edition


TED: How great leaders inspire action


The principle message inspires action comes to that can deliver “meaning”, which refers to answering “why”.

Here follows the speech transcript conducted by Simon Sinek in TED speech:

If Apple were like everyone else, a marketing message from them might sound like this: “We make great computers. They’re beautifully designed, simple to use and user friendly. Want to buy one?” “Meh.” That’s how most of us communicate. That’s how most marketing and sales are done, that’s how we communicate interpersonally. We say what we do, we say how we’re different or better and we expect some sort of a behavior, a purchase, a vote, something like that.

Here’s how Apple actually communicates. “Everything we do, we believe in challenging the status quo. We believe in thinking differently. The way we challenge the status quo is by making our products beautifully designed, simple to use and user friendly. We just happen to make great computers. Want to buy one?”

apple different


Logics Tree: Pyramid Principle

Pyramid Principle is founded on the facts that: 1) Listeners are interested in things they don’t know rather than those they’ve already known. 2) These unknown things will arouse questions and listeners will bear question marks “why”, “what”, “how” and etc.

Therefore, organizing information and ideas in two major ways can facilitate communication to grab the audience’s attention to follow our storyline: 1) Deductive 2) Inductive.