Causal-effect relationship helps in the analysis of situation and problem-solving issues. Thus, it is of necessity to bear in mind causal hypotheses testing principles:
Covariation between A and B.
- Do we find that A and B occur together in the way hypothesized?
- When A dos not occur, is there also an absence of B?
- When there is more or less of A, does one also find more or less of B?
Time order of events moving in the hypothesized direction
- Does A occur before B?
No other possible causes of B.
- Can one determine that C, D and E do not covary with B in a way that suggests possible causal connections?
Source: Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill International Edition, Ninth Edition