Critical thinking: Test causal hypothesis

Causal-effect relationship helps in the analysis of situation and problem-solving issues. Thus, it is of necessity to bear in mind causal hypotheses testing principles:

Covariation between A and B.

  • Do we find that A and B occur together in the way hypothesized?
  • When A dos not occur, is there also an absence of B?
  • When there is more or less of A, does one also find more or less of B?

Time order of events moving in the hypothesized direction

  • Does A occur before B?

No other possible causes of B.

  • Can one determine that C, D and E do not covary with B in a way that suggests possible causal connections?


Source: Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill International Edition, Ninth Edition